The movement eventually deteriorated into an ethos of subversion, destruction, and anarchy, and by the late s, a nihilist was anyone associated with clandestine political groups advocating terrorism and assassination. Other philosophers' predictions about nihilism's impact have been dire. Max Stirner's attacks on systematic philosophy, his denial of absolutes, and his rejection of abstract concepts of any kind often places him among the first philosophical nihilists. Melancholic and fascinated, such is our general situation in an era of involuntary transparency. The aim is lacking, and 'Why' finds no answer" Will to Power. The Will to Power is also the principle of every earlier valuation of values. Convinced that Nietzsche's analysis was accurate, for example, Oswald Spengler in The Decline of the West studied several cultures to confirm that patterns of nihilism were indeed a conspicuous feature of collapsing civilizations.
He found his nihilistic ways challenged upon falling in love. In Russia, nihilism became identified with a loosely organized revolutionary movement C. Camus was fully aware of the pitfalls of defining existence without meaning, and in his philosophical essay The Rebel he faces the problem of nihilism head-on. By rejecting man's spiritual essence in favor of a solely materialistic one, nihilists denounced God and religious authority as antithetical to freedom. During the s, a Nietzschean 'renaissance' began, culminating in the work of Mazzino Montinari and Giorgio Colli. The movement advocated a social arrangement based on rationalism and materialism as the sole source of knowledge and individual freedom as the highest goal. Although he argues passionately that individuals could endure its corrosive effects, his most famous works betray the extraordinary difficulty he faced building a convincing case. Antifoundationalism and Nihilism By the late 20th century, "nihilism" had assumed two different castes. On the other hand, Vattimo judges Heidegger's intentions authentic enough to keep pursuing them. That is to say, it makes an epistemological claim compared to nihilism's ontological claim. This perspective is derived from the existentialists' reflections on nihilism stripped of any hopeful expectations, leaving only the experience of sickness, decay, and disintegration. In antiquity, such profound pessimism may have reached its apex with Hegesias of Cyrene. I describe what is coming, what can no longer come differently: And in his last novel, the short and sardonic, The Fall , Camus posits that everyone has bloody hands because we are all responsible for making a sorry state worse by our inane action and inaction alike. This form of nihilism is characterized by Nietzsche as "a sign of strength,"  a willful destruction of the old values to wipe the slate clean and lay down one's own beliefs and interpretations, contrary to the passive nihilism that resigns itself with the decomposition of the old values. Heidegger's method of researching and teaching Nietzsche is explicitly his own. Gloomy predictions of nihilism's impact are also charted in Eugene Rose's Nihilism: Rejecting idealism thus results in nihilism, because only similarly transcendent ideals live up to the previous standards that the nihilist still implicitly holds. In lieu of meta-narratives we have created new language-games in order to legitimize our claims which rely on changing relationships and mutable truths, none of which is privileged over the other to speak to ultimate truth. Now, fascination in contrast to seduction, which was attached to appearances, and to dialectical reason, which was attached to meaning is a nihilistic passion par excellence, it is the passion proper to the mode of disappearance. If we survived the process of destroying all interpretations of the world, we could then perhaps discover the correct course for humankind: Vattimo explains that with this new edition of Colli and Montinari, a critical reception of Heidegger's interpretation of Nietzsche began to take shape. Ethical nihilism or moral nihilism rejects the possibility of absolute moral or ethical values. Michael Novak's recently revised The Experience of Nothingness , tells a similar story. Existential nihilism is the notion that life has no intrinsic meaning or value, and it is, no doubt, the most commonly used and understood sense of the word today. In contrast to the efforts to overcome nihilism noted above is the uniquely postmodern response associated with the current antifoundationalists.
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The Philosophy of Rick and Morty – Wisecrack Edition
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